Palatine Bone Definition
It is a small bone in the skull, and one of its vital parts. It can be found in many animals that belong to the Chordata phylum species that have dual L-shaped bones as the constituents of their nasal cavities, orbits and hard palate. Each bone is referred as Palatum or Palatine Bone.
Palatine Bone Anatomy
The Palatine bone, in humans, enters into dual fossæ formations:
This bone consists of a Perpendicular Plate, a Horizontal plate and as many as three outstanding processes - Sphenoidal Process, Orbital Process and Pyramidal Process.
How Does the Palatine Bone Look Like?
In humans, the bone is shaped like the letter “L”. However, the visual aspect of the bone tends to slightly vary across various animal species. In the Rough Skinned Newts and different amphibians, it forms a structure shaped like the letter ‘V’.
The vertical and horizontal elements of the one form a 45° angle in different cat species.
Palatine Bone Location
The bone can be found at the back of the nasal cavity in humans, located between the maxilla and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid. The bone is connected with the maxilla by the Transverse palatine suture.
The Pyramidal Process is situated at the rear part of the greater palatine foramen. It points back laterally from the area where the two Palatines connect in the human body. The Sphenoidal and the Orbital Process can be found at the top section of the vertical area of the Palatum. The two processes are kept isolated by the sphenopalatine notch, a deep notch. The lower sphenoid surface transforms this deep notch into sphenopalatine foramen.
The corner of the soft palate, where it connects with the rear edge of the tuberosities, consists of quite a few small bumps. Also referred to as the hamulii, such kinds of bumps are the tips of the hamular processes of the palatine bone or small protuberances from the skull.
Palatine Bone Functions
The Palatine pair mainly serves to create a part of the upper oral roof or the hard palate. The bones also constitute a vital section of the nasal cavity and eye sockets. The Palatine bones also provide the oral and nasal cavities as well as the orbits with proper shape.
Palatine Bone Articulations
The Palatum is a bone in the face, and articulates with bones like:
Palatine Bone Ossification
The membrane in the Palatine bone’s perpendicular plate starts appearing during the final week of the fetus’ second month of growth. The bone is ossified within the membrane during this period. From this time, the bone ossification has a downward expansion into the pyramidal process, up into the orbital and the sphenoidal processes and medially into the horizontal plate of the Palatine bone.
Palatine Bone in other Creatures
Bony fishes with Palatum only have the Perpendicular Plate. The bone is there on the maxilla’s inner edge. There are usually a few teeth arranged in fishes on the lower surface, which form another row in a position rear to the maxilla. Palatine teeth are usually bigger than the maxillary teeth.
In primitive tetrapods, one can see same types of patterns. The Palatine bone, however, just forms a narrow bar between the vomer and the maxilla in salamanders, frogs and other amphibians.
The lower Palatum surface, in different mammal species, is seen to fold over and meet at the middle part of the mouth to develop the Horizontal Plate, as a part of the evolutionary process. This is seen in the majority of mammals, including equine, canine and feline species. It makes it easier for mammals to breathe while eating, and forms the rear edge of the hard palate – thus separating the oral and nasal cavities. The Palatine bones are isolated in birds and create a mobile articulation with the cranium. The bones in a number of living reptiles, such as crocodilians, are similar to those in mammals.
Perpendicular Plate of Palatine Bone
The Perpendicular Plate of the Palatum is its vertical part. It is thin and long, consists of two surfaces and has as many as 4 borders. The Nasal Surface is one of its two surfaces. Its lower part, which forms a vital section of the inferior nasal meatus, has a broad, shallow depression. Its maxillary surface is rough and irregular, and forms a junction with the maxilla’s nasal surface.
The Perpendicular Plate consists of 4 borders - Inferior, Superior, Anterior and Posterior border.
Horizontal Plate of Palatine Bone
The horizontal part or plate of the Palatine bone is quadrilateral in shape, and consists of two surfaces and 4 borders. The rear side of the nasal cavity floor is formed by the concave superior surface and a part of the hard palate is formed by the inferior surface. At times, the lower Horizontal Palatum Plate surface has a transverse ridge marking.
The Horizontal Palatum Plate has 4 borders – Medial, Lateral, Anterior and Posterior border. The medial end of the posterior border joins with the pointed end of the bone located opposite the Palatum and creates an extended process. It is referred to as the posterior nasal spine.
Palatine Bone Diseases and Problems
One of the numerous paired bones in the body, these can be impacted by infection, trauma, facial fractures or even cancer. It can also be affected by different birth defects, and the face can also get damaged due to the problem.
A congenital problem, Cleft palate arises when the Palatum in a kid fails to properly develop prior to birth At times, the dual skull plates constituting the upper surface or the hard palate of the mouth are not joined properly. The disorder is referred to as the cleft palate. The soft palate is also cleft in these cases. Most people suffering from a cleft palate also suffer from a cleft lip. It is quite a rare disorder, but still affects 1 in every 700 live born across the globe. Surgical treatment for a cleft lip or palate is possible.
Palatine Bone Pictures
Check out the following diagrams and images to know how the Palatine bone looks like:
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